Beauty A Study In Philosophy
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The results of the ancient aesthetics were summed up by Plotinus in two special treatises: On the Beautiful En. I 6 and Mindful Beauty En V 8. According to his understanding, beauty permeates the whole universe and is an indicator of the optimal beingness of all its components. The higher the level of being, the higher the degree of beauty. The first and the highest are an intelligible beauty. At this stage are the ideal beauty of nature, the beauty of the human soul and the beauty of virtues, sciences, and the arts.
The lower step is occupied by sensually perceived beauty, to which Plotinus attributed the visible beauty of the material world and the beauty of works of art. The transmission expiration of beauty from the upper to the lower stages is accomplished through eidos emanating from the Mind and undergoing ever-increasing materialization.
The absence of beauty, or ugly, testifies to the exhaustion of being.
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The essence of art Plotinus saw in the expression in the corresponding material of beauty, i. Sensual beauty excites in the soul a contemplative longing for divine beauty and points the way to it. In the erotic impulse, the soul rushes to the origins of the beautiful.
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In Augustine, as in Plotinus, beauty is an indicator of the beingness of things. Beauty can be static and dynamic. Developing the ideas of Cicero, Augustine distinguishes the beautiful in itself and for itself, i. Following Plotinus, he builds a Christian hierarchy of beauty. Its source is God, and the supreme bearer of the Logos is Christ. From him, the beauty of the universe celestial ranks, soul and body of a man, objects and phenomena of the material world and spiritual beauty moral, the beauty of sciences and art take place.
Beauty gives pleasure; her contemplation can lead to bliss; it is the object of love and stands above utility and all utilitarian. The beauty of the whole arises from the harmonic unity of the opposite components, in particular, the beautiful and ugly elements.
Structural principles of sensually perceived beauty are form, number rhythm , order, equality, symmetry, proportionality, proportion, agreement , conformity, likeness, balance, contrast and the principle that is the principle of unity. The beauty of man consists in the unity of his spiritual and bodily beauty.
- Aesthetics, Ancient | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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The lack of physical beauty does not prevent a person from being involved in higher levels of beauty, including the higher. The main goal of all arts is the creation of beauty. In the eastern patristic, the greatest attention was paid to the problems of beauty by the Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagite, based on Neoplatonic and early Christian ideas. In his understanding, the driving force of the universe is the divine eros, which is aroused by beauty and beauty.
Light in the Areopagite system, as in the medieval aesthetics of Byzantium and Western Europe, is one of the main modifications of beauty. Aesthetic representations of the Fathers of the Church, the Neoplatonists and, in part, Aristotle and the Stoics formed the basis of the medieval Christian aesthetics and in the understanding of the beautiful. On the one hand, beauty was understood objectively — as an objectified radiant Glory of God splendor Dei , expressing itself in the beauty of the material world.
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Light aesthetics develops, the anagogic function of the beautiful is established John Scotus Eriugena and other followers of the Areopagite. Reasoning about the morally beautiful, he concludes that evil does not promote beauty, but in some cases, its presence, in contrast, can enhance beauty. The humanists of the Italian Renaissance placed the beauty of art in the center of aesthetic representations and artistic practice.
Developing one of the main principles of ancient art — the idealization that reached its climax in Greek classical sculpture, the Renaissance masters created in the painting and sculpture already in the mainstream of Christian culture a unique and rich world of pictorial and plastic idealized images — a model of a beautiful world that avoided spoiling the fall. Classicism normativized these ideas and principles, bringing them in theory and practice to a cold academic formalism. For the philosophy of the 18th century characterized by a search for a correlation between the objective characteristics of beauty and the subjective reactions to it of the perceiver.
These activities are aspects of rationality.
Concepts of Beauty in Philosophy
Foundationalism holds that basic beliefs exist, which are justified without reference to other beliefs, and that non-basic beliefs must ultimately be justified by basic beliefs, which, in the case of Classical foundationalism, are those that are self- evident. Mental states and immediate experience can be examples of basic beliefs. Constructivism stems from a number of philosophies.
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